The Tiburtino Stream, a Tiete river affluent, crosses perpendicularly the railway tracks and was a determinant factor to the design of the train station. The construction of the train station itself contemplates this stretch of the creek over the future platforms.
The process of lowering the tracks demanded a study on the bending of the tracks in this stretch. The ramps follow the CPTM standards – 1.5%, which is defined by the cargo trains.
The location of the Lapa Station is on the limits so that the accessing ramps be contained between the Lapa and Água Branca patios. Since it is the cargo lines that determines the distances, and because the ramps have to have a light inclination, the distance becomes rather large.
Beyond the stream, other interferences can be accommodated next to the implantation of the station. For structural and safety reasons, the mezzanine slab is under a 1.5 meter layer of earth, where several infra-structure elements can run without causing interferences. This earth layer allows the growing of bigger trees at the ground floor.
At North Side, next to one of the access, it was proposed a construction of another bus terminal. The train station stays limited at both extremities by the connection points of bus terminals.
The mezzanine was divided into two parts. The first one contains ticket offices and public restrooms, blockade lines, service rooms and access to the platforms. The entrances are located on a several plots adjacent to the railway strip and are connected with the mezzanine through tunnels.
The platforms on the street level are covered by a single roof, constructed with the same steel pieces that will be used again on the second phase.
Lines 7 and 8 have consolidated two access situations – at North and at South of the tracks, and these are crossing points established in the city. They are located not distant to the SPTrans Bus Terminal and near 12 de Outubro Street, an important commercial area.
In reason of the high demand, the quantity of blockade lines and tickets offices was a decisive factor in establishing independent accesses. The separate entrances allows that the creek be kept in its current course.
It is at this phase that the new systems shall be implemented – Line 9 and the traffic of express trains, and the second part of the mezzanine, symmetrically positioned to the one already constructed. Under the concluded mezzanine, the digging will continue until the construction of the new platforms.
The ramp used during the digging operations of the construction is now transformed into a great opening that sprays light and fresh air to people into the platforms.
Because of the localization of the two new entrances, a marquee has been proposed at the city level. This roof resolves the protection of the accesses to the train station and allows that the connection between the two bus terminals be done at the same level. The opening to the exterior reduces the needs for any mechanic ventilation system.
The street level is connected to the mezzanine throughout two large skylights. The train keeps participating in the scenery, because when one stays in the marquee it is still possible to see them running down. The uncovered part of the Tiburtino Stream can also be seen from this same marquee flowing under the station. The new Lapa Station reveals a little part of the water system that runs canalized under the ground.
The new station allows the connection of the three main transversal streets. This new crosses reconnects the segregated fabric of Lapa District. The new boulevard along the railway strip permits the transformation of the back side of the city into a new public charming space.
The lowered railway strip measuring one kilometer long and 55 meter wide in this stretch, creates the possibilities of constructing new buildings, large sidewalks and pleasant public spaces, all associated with this operation.
Along the avenue the great marquee provides space to shops, cafeterias, restaurants and the entrances of the new buildings. These multi-use buildings placed above the marquee, actually over a continuous green roof that identifies the whole of actions taken and reverting to the public administration the profits resulting from the real state operations. The parking areas of these buildings can share the space between the tracks and the ground level (using the diaphragm walls as structure), intercalated by the mezzanines in the railway station.
This is a new operation intended to replace the current way of looking at the transportation on rails , which in São Paulo is historically not planned and thought as complex of sectors that must be integrated to new city operations, to the new ways of local connections, to the appearance of under-structural interferences (like the Tiburtino stream) . All that must connected to the real state segment so that costs of implementation can be reduced for the public administration. At last an urban design working as a triggering action, where the city reveals itself on sectioned views.
Lapa - São Paulo, SP.
UNA arquitetos: Cristiane Muniz, Fábio Valentim, Fernanda Barbara e Fernando Viégas
Ana Paula de Castro, Eduardo Martorelli, Bruno Gondo, Roberto Galvão jr., Carolina Klocker, Filipe Barrocas, Luccas Matos
Falcão Bauer/ Geribello, Supervisor Ferroviario
eng. Heloísa Maringoni
eng. Luis Fernando Correa
Straub Engenharia de Custos